In this tutorial, we will learn about approaches to management analysis grown different approaches and viewpoints to the study of management have come into being.
Some of the approaches to management are:
IT approach management.
Contingency or Situational approach.
Scientific management approach.
Management process or Administrative management approach.
Human Relations approach.
Behavioral Science approach.
Everything you need to know about the management approaches: in recent years, as the interest, needs, and importance of management have grown, different approaches and viewpoints to the study of management have come into being.
Management affecting people, technology, values, and human wants has attracted the attention of psychologists, anthropologists, sociologists, mathematicians, economists, politicians, scientists, physicists, biologists, business administration scholars, and even practicing managers.
May various schools of management thought, each employing certain beliefs, views, and disciplines, have come into existence.
- It developed by the study and analysis of cases and comparative approaches.
- The application of practical techniques in comparable situations can attain through the study of success and failures.
- This approach intends to generalize a case study to establish theories as useful guides for the future course of action.
Inter-Personal Behavior Approach:
- It also terms as Behavioral Science, leadership, Human behavior approach.
- It focuses on interpersonal relations and personality dynamics.
- Approach lens heavily on the human aspect of management.
Decision Theory Approach:
- Emphasizes on decision making being the core of management.
- It involves the organizational group’s decision making or analysis of the decision-making process.
- An attempt made to cover the social and psychological aspects of decision-makers.
- Analysts believe that planning, decision making, and organizing conform to logical process, then the same can be presented in mathematical symbols.
- Operation researchers and analysts primarily belong to this group.
- It is closely related to the decision theory approach.
This approach regards an enterprise as a system. A system is composed of related and interdependent elements forming a unitary whole. Every order made up of several subsystems.
Similarly, an organization is a view as a system made up of several parts in the form of departments while each department is independent and accomplishes specific predetermined goals; the top management coordinates all.
For example, to decide on expanding the productive capacity, data from other departments in charge of product planning, market research, finance, etc., are collected because of others’ actions. Thus, the main focus of the systems approach is on the interdependence and interrelatedness of the various subsystems. Each aspect should not be studied in isolation but must examine the entire system as a whole.
This approach is the latest approach to existing methods. According to this approach, there is no single way or the best way to address a given problem situation. This approach is opposed to one size fits all formula approach. Managers should not labor under the notion that managerial principles and techniques have universal applicability.
But manager pursuing a contingency approach shall not apply either theory for the entire workforce. He would increase the wage for low skilled and unskilled workers while introducing alternative work options, participative management, and employee empowerment for talented employees.
Thus, the contingency approach with situational emphasis and integration of the environment into management and practice seems more appropriate in the contemporary context. However, critics point out that there is no theoretical base for a contingency approach. Further, it is the stat that the efficacy of the contingency approach depends on managers’ capability to understand a given situation and choose appropriate techniques instead of positioning itself.
- Actual managing is a real-life situation.
- Recognizes that there is a central core of knowledge.
- Consolidated the vital thinking of all approach of management.
Henry Fayol, known as “Founder of Modern management Theory,” grouped the management elements into five managerial functions and six activities.
According to Luther Gulick “POSDCORD”